Combining Likert Scale Variables In Spss

To run the Frequencies procedure, click Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Frequencies. This is desired place for many students to get their SPSS Homework, Projects & Assignments help taken from. It was found that the largest bias in the estimation of the model R-squared, the relative Pratt Index, and Pearson correlation coefficient occurred for two or three-point Likert scales. For simplicity, variables that have only two categories, even if they can be ranked, will be referred to as qualitative variables since this will be important later when determining which statistical tests may be used for analysis. How to combine single Likert items into one scale? I have to combine/sum these variables into one measurement. With Likert-scale items this is particularly common. Add Variables merges the active dataset with another open dataset or external IBM® SPSS® Statistics data file that contains the same cases (rows) but different variables (columns). SCALES AND MEASURES A graduate level introduction and illustrated tutorial to measurement and scaling, including Likert scales, Guttman scales, Mokken scales, Rasch scales and more. How to code gender in spss (source: on YouTube) How to code gender in spss. I am working on a data set that is made up of multiple response questions. We have given it the variable name fenctch2 and the variable label “Time 2 Fence Touch: Post Cow School. To check the reliability of Likert scale items follows the steps given below: Step 1: On the Menu bar of SPSS, Click Analyze > Scale > Reliability Analysis… option Step 2: Select two more variables that you want to test and shift them from left pan to right pan of reliability analysis dialogue box. ), you can transform them prior to including them in your model. By Ruben Geert van den Berg on April 22nd, 2016. Using SPSS, enter data from a questionnaire in which respondents had to choose one option from a likert scale. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Age in spss nominal or scale | Поиск. It is not possible to rank the categories created. This discussion here will show five options on how to graph Likert scale data, will show best/common practice for graphing, and will provide the R code for each graph. A survey, on the other hand, includes the process of making the questionnaire, collecting the responses, aggregating the data and analysing it (SurveyMonkey, 2019). There is a widespread belief (though I'm not aware of any strong empirical foundation for it) that the points on the scale are nearly equidistant in terms of the psychological construct of agreement, which would justify treating it as continuous. Randomizing the order of questions, pages, and/or answer options in your survey can prevent bias introduced by order and/or survey fatigue. This is the Data Editor Window, used to work with data and variables. A Likert-type scale involves a series of statements that survey respondents may choose from, in order to rate their responses to evaluative questions. Now to make the population pyramid Likert chart we will use SPSS’s ability to reflect panels, and so we assign an indicator variable to delineate the positive and negative responses. The main effect of each independent variable can be tested, as well as the effect of the interaction of the two factors. An individual item using a Likert response format (i. The Likert scale is named for its creator, American scientist Rensis Likert, who felt that surveys yielding only yes-or-no answers were limited in their usefulness. What I want to do is combine these and hopefully do a regression analysis (Is this allowed, btw? I've googled for days, but there seem to be a lot of disagreement). For instance, to assess purchase intentions three items on the survey were used to measure this (purch1; purch2; purch3). Select one variable that is measured as a continuous or metric variable (age, Likert scale item, etc. SPSS Combine Categorical Variables - System Missing Values. It is only one question, but multiple answer. Are they? To run a frequency distribution, click Analyze, Descriptive Statistics, then Frequencies. We also provide Tutors for SPSS also. I am working on a data set that is made up of multiple response questions. The Likert scale is commonly used in survey research. Statistics is a diverse profession, with statisticians working in areas such as health care, manufacturing, defense, and national security, to name just a few. Then, the scale’s Cronbach’s alpha was high and ranged between 0. I have already run Cronbach's Alpha in SPSS and the 4 items have a very high Alpha. Females • k-Samples • Evaluate a variable for three or more groups from a population. The scale is named after Rensis Likert, who published a report describing its use (Likert, 1932). Merge-SPSS Merging Data Files In SPSS You have two data files. A Likert scale, on the other hand, is composed of a series of four or more Likert-type items that are combined into a single composite score/variable during the data analysis process. You can then analyse the answers to these questions to see if people are generally satisfied or dissatisfied, so you are more able to judge where to put the effort in to. If someone wants to recode a 5-point Likert scale, they can easily use the reverse coded Q01 feature with: COMPUTE RQ01 = (6 – Q01). Testing Normality in SPSS. Width (string variables only) String variables with a width of 8 characters or fewer are called short string variables. How to compute scores in SPSS It is sometimes necessary to compute a new variable, condensing several raw data points into one. Working with rating scale questions One of the most useful forms of question is a rating scale, where you ask people to mark how satisfied they were with an item or a service. The Likert scale is one of the most commonly used scales in the research community. The additional information on reliability and correlations between scales that is returned by the function is relevant both to characterising the scale and checking that it was formed correctly. I was recently asked about whether it's okay to treat a likert scale as continuous as a predictor in a regression model. For likert-scale variables, the coefficient is the effect of moving up 1 on the scale. In SPSS, there are three basic options for. Since first described by Likert (1932), the range of variables assessed by these scales, as well as their scalar ranges, has proliferated. 2 Questionnaires Since questionnaire designers often want specific quantitative results from the surveys they produce, categorical and Likert-type questions are ideal. Variables with numeric responses are assigned the scale variable label by default. 5 Weighted maximum likelyhood scales. With a Likert scale, you will get a somewhat skewed Gauss curve, shifted to the right (assuming positive answers are on the right) and cut off on the right. Very little, little, much, very much), and if you want to use the mean of this scale for something else, you should compute the mean score for each rater and then compute ICC(1,2) on the means. Numeric or string. Please help on using SPSS to add scales of Likert-type Enter a variable. You will see two windows. Assigning value labels within the Variable View screen in SPSS ensures that the output is labelled appropriately when grouping variables are used - for example, 1 = males, 2 = females. You should also take a look at the list of additional resources. To do this you will take the average score of the questions. So let's see how to complete an ordinal regression in SPSS, using our example of NC English levels as the outcome and looking at gender as an explanatory variable. Testing Normality in SPSS. Each of these has been explained below in detail. How to Test Reliability Method Alpha Using SPSS | instruments are valid and reliable research is a necessary condition to obtain high-quality research results. This means that the scores must all have the same valence: if you score higher on one item, you will score higher on the other. If needed, the central NYU IT Service Desk is also available 24x7. First, contact your school or unit’s local IT support. self-confidence, then those should be combined into one variable (provided some conditions described below are met). Measuring customer satisfaction using ordinal variables: an application in survey… 335 bar. sav (SPSS) files to smaller, faster-to-load RDS files (e. [ΝΒ it is possible to select the mean , but I don’t recommend it]. As you do this, SPSS gives you an indication of what the table is going to look like. Cada uno de estos números son "elementos de Likert", y por lo general han sido etiquetados de "Totalmente en desacuerdo" a "Totalmente de acuerdo", con varios intervalos entre ellos. Re: Invert Likert-Scale Values In reply to this post by Alexis Delevett Alexis and John, To reverse a Likert like item, subtract the item from the maximum acceptable value + the minimum acceptable value, That is, if x <- 1:8 xreverse <- 9-x Bill At 2:16 PM -0700 8/4/07, Alexis Delevett wrote:. 0 to perform Mann Whitney U tests, Sign tests and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests on ordinally scaled data. Analysis > Bivariate gives you three different types of correlation coefficient that you can use to assess the relationship between this scale and another scale. Typically the researcher is only interested in the composite. Using SPSS for Ordinally Scaled Data: Mann-Whitney U, Sign Test, and Wilcoxon Tests. A typical scale could be "strongly agree, unsure/undecided, disagree, strongly disagree". In SPSS use Transform > Compute variable to do this. These correlations are explored in factor analysis and/or inspection of item-total correlations with the "reliability" program in SPSS or other. Assign a name to the new variable (e. For a nominal variable, values fall into distinct categories, such as political party, color or model number. What I have accomplished is that there are several questions on rows and Likert scale values' (1-5) counts/frequencies on five columns, but pivot only repeats the same values that are on the first row on every other row. Window Use the Window menu to switch between SPSS windows or to minimize all open SPSS windows. This "Getting started with SPSS" resource is contributed to the statstutor Community project by Christine Pereira, Brunel University and reviewed by Kate Richards, MEI. Converting likert scales into numbers in excel. This is probably the easiest. Select one variable that is measured as a continuous or metric variable (age, Likert scale item, etc. The analysis of Likert scales is tricky (I personally don't use them b/c of this). For the eight factor solution, it is not even applicable in SPSS because it will spew out a warning that "You cannot request as many factors as variables with any extraction method except PC. For my thesis, i was handed a dataset with around 100 7-point Likert-scale items. Okay, I have 6 likert items meant to capture atittudes toward gender roles. I can think of a few ways to do that that might make sense. Multivariate statistics allows for associations and effects between predictor and outcome variables to be adjusted for by demographic, clinical, and prognostic variables (simultaneous regression). In other words, the reliability of any given measurement refers to the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept, and Cronbach’s alpha is one way of measuring the strength of that consistency. in SPSS you find the variable computing tool in menu: Transform -> Compute Variable 5. This means that the scores must all have the same valence: if you score higher on one item, you will score higher on the other. Add Variables merges the active dataset with another open dataset or external IBM® SPSS® Statistics data file that contains the same cases (rows) but different variables (columns). If I have a measure of bullying and use SPSS to make 3 new sub-scales with each sub-scale has X number of item (questions) in each category, like this: Scale A (5 items) - ( each question scored on a 5 point likert scale ) Scale B (3 items) Scale C (7 items). A two-way ordinal analysis of variance can address an experimental design with two independent variables, each of which is a factor variable. This will open the SPSS Database Wizard. A Variable(s): The variables to produce Frequencies output for. And of course, there is still the issue of whether it makes sense to combine the variables in the first place. Linear Regression Analysis for Survey Data Professor Ron Fricker Naval Postgraduate School Goals for this Lecture • Linear regression - How to think about it for Lickert scale dependent variables - Coding nominal independent variables • Linear regression for complex surveys • Not so much for Likert scales without neutral. Mean: Using ANOVA for a sum of Likert scaled variables (created 2008-10-09). I used IBM SPSS Statistics v19 on my 64-bit Windows 8. Use of ordinal variables such as 5-point Likert scales with interval techniques is the norm in contemporary social science. So hat I have three variables as a result. For example, the 2008 General Social asks specific "yes/no" variables regarding opinions on abortion under the following circumstances: defect of the baby (Abdefect), health of the mother (Abhealth), rape (Abrape), when a married woman wants no more children (abnomore), and because a. Notice that you can scroll up to the previous output you created using the menu commands. One option is to treat it as a nominal variable with five (or seven, or however many) items. A Likert scale is a question which contains 5 or 7 response options. These scales always ask people to indicate how much they agree or disagree, approve or disapprove, believe to be true or false. The ANOVA test procedure produces an F-statistic, which is used to calculate the p-value. Likert Scale Survey Question. This course provides the participants with a practical application of the statistical component of IBM® SPSS® Statistics. In this article learn how to use SPSS software to analyze data for research paper. In this section, you will learn about the most common quantitative analysis procedures that are used in small program evaluation. In SPSS use Transform > Compute variable to do this. Please email if not urgent. This is a critical question to measure the opinion or attitude of a respondent towards a specific topic, so it will be of great help in the next step of an investigation. Cronbachs alpha is most commonly used when you want to assess the internal consistency of a questionnaire (or survey) that is made up of multiple Likert-type scales and items. RQ3: Since age is a ratio-level variable, and I have decided to treat the indexes of outcome evaluations as interval-level variables, the obvious analysis for RQ3 is Pearson correlation. So, let’s have a glance that how SPSS helps in the likert scale analysis. Creating a new SPSS Statistics data file consists of two. variable names can't contain spaces, the spaces from the original column headings have been removed. In SPSS, there are three basic options for. Therefore, the correct data will be determining true the results of research quality. My supervisor can not help me and my fellow students with Stata, since she is trained with SPSS, and neither Google search nor the manual granted any helpful results, so that is why i came to this forum. The Likert-scale survey is a comprehensive technique for gauging feedback and information, which makes it significantly easy to understand and respond. Home | Can an Ordinal Likert Scale be a Continuous Variable? Likert scales are a way for participants to respond to a question with a level of agreement, disagreement, satisfaction, and so on. Combined, the items are used to provide a quantitative measure of a character or personality trait. Also, the "corrected item- total correlation" is high enough. Very helpful in this context was the new debug feature of RStudio, that also keeps track of all variables and their content and allows step-by-step execution of your code. How to combine single Likert items into one scale? I have to combine/sum these variables into one measurement. Research Skills for Psychology Majors: Everything You Need to Know to Get Started Descriptive Statistics This chapter introduces descriptives statistics. the mean is the best measure of central tendency Inference. If someone wants to recode a 5-point Likert scale, they can easily use the reverse coded Q01 feature with: COMPUTE RQ01 = (6 – Q01). I have a sample of 300 respondents to whose I addressed a question of 20 items of 5-point (response. There are two ways to do this in SPSS syntax. com is number 1 website in SPSS assignment online help niche. Measuring customer satisfaction using ordinal variables: an application in survey… 335 bar. The major defining factor among Likert data is that, on its own, it appears ordinal, and has a tendency to rise when opinions sway toward the higher. Scale variables come in four types: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. The Frequencies procedure can produce summary measures for categorical variables in the form of frequency tables, bar charts, or pie charts. " Using SPSS for Nominal Data (Binomial and Chi-Squared Tests) "This tutorial will show you how to use SPSS version 12. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (Spearman’s correlation, for short) is a nonparametric measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two variables measured on at least an ordinal scale. Age in spss nominal or scale | Поиск. ) and a full likert scale. Scales of Variable Measurement Scales of Variable Measurement Variables are measurement using an instrument, device, or computer. measured in percent, while gender is “dummy” or “binary” variable with two. In Most business researches Likert Scale variables are taken as having equal interval. For example, if you have questionnaire Go to Transform - Recode into Different Variables 3. I am working on a data set that is made up of multiple response questions. Quantitative data can be analyzed in a variety of different ways. This tutorial will show you how to use SPSS version 9. There’s a little SPSS coding trick that involves the compute command. In this scale, the questions are suitable to measure mean that can give you a sense in which direction most of the people's opinion took place. In particular, the questionnaires propagated by the SERVQUAL approach are based on Likert scales. 1 operating system to analyze data for this article. It was found that the largest bias in the estimation of the model R-squared, the relative Pratt Index, and Pearson correlation coefficient occurred for two or three-point Likert scales. My question/problem is: How can I combine these 4 Likert items into one scale, so that I have one number for each latent variable that I can use for my analysis? Some extra information: All the Likert item are measured on a 5-point-Likert scale. • Evaluate a variable for a single group within a population e. Likert items and Likert scales. What is a Likert Scale Survey Question?. However, for this variable the measurements were made after the sample had completed 3 weeks of Cow School. i also asked the age, GPA, and sex of the participant. How to code likert scale data in excel. Compare frequencies between multiple groups spss. Likert Scales seek information for understanding a subject's attitude by combining the individual's responses to a series of opinion questions designed to address relevant aspects of the attitude in question. The analysis of Likert scales is tricky (I personally don't use them b/c of this). I have already run Cronbach's Alpha in SPSS and the 4 items have a very high Alpha. Linear Regression Analysis for Survey Data Professor Ron Fricker Naval Postgraduate School Goals for this Lecture • Linear regression - How to think about it for Lickert scale dependent variables - Coding nominal independent variables • Linear regression for complex surveys • Not so much for Likert scales without neutral. To distinguish individual items from the summated Likert scale, we will refer to the individual items as Likert-type items. The independent variable is the exercise, and the. The syntax for computing the standard deviation is: DESCRIPTIVES VARIABLES=Y1 Y2 Y3 /STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX. By selecting Sorted by size, SPSS will order the variables by their factor loadings. The Performance of Multiple Imputation for Likert-type Items with Missing Data Walter Leite S. Importing Excel Databases Into SPSS. If you asked 15 questions, you should have at least 15 different variables. standred devation and other T-test, ANOVA, correlation and the others are not possible to be done by SPSS. Correlations of 0. In other words, you want to know the duration in seconds that lies exactly at the midpoint of the distribution of all durations. But factor analysis is a more advanced analysis technique. While not all summated scales are created according to Likert's specific procedures, all such scales share the basic logic associated with Likert scaling. There are a number of different ways of calculating the median in SPSS. While true or not the data is highly dependent on true or not the research instrument. So let’s see how to complete an ordinal regression in SPSS, using our example of NC English levels as the outcome and looking at gender as an explanatory variable. (Exploratory Factor Analysis - EFA) Validation of psychometric measures (Confirmatory Factor Analysis – CFA – cannot be done in SPSS, you have to use e. The major defining factor among Likert data is that, on its own, it appears ordinal, and has a tendency to rise when opinions sway toward the higher. categories and benchmarks 7 Data-gathering techniques 8 Types of techniques 8 Likert survey items 9 Ranking scales 9 Social distance scales 9 Paired comparisons 9 Q-Sorts 10 Fixed resources allocations 10 Other methods 10 Methods of combining items in a scale 10 Overview 10 Indexes 10 Ordinal scales 11 Ordered scales 11 Composite scores 12 Factors and latent variables 12 Multidimensional scales 12 Tau Equivalence 13. Robert Warmbrod1 Abstract Forty-nine percent of the 706 articles published in the Journal of Agricultural Education from 1995 to 2012 reported quantitative research with at least one variable measured by a Likert-type scale. Analyzing Likert scale responses really comes down to what you want to accomplish (e. This type of question is very useful when you. Such kinds of challenges occur while using Likert type data. Our professionals offer the highest quality when it comes to analyzing Likert scale data, but we also give you the most amazing prices. Window Use the Window menu to switch between SPSS windows or to minimize all open SPSS windows. Aptitude, attitude, interest, performance, and personality tests are all measuring instruments based on scales. CPSC 681 – Topic Report Dane Bertram Likert Scales 1 | Page Likert Scale \lick­urt\, n. Enjoyment scale. SPSS is not freeware, and besides Windows, you can download the Linux version, as well. Computing variables in SPSS refers to computing with existing variables to create new variables. 5 Weighted maximum likelyhood scales. What measure of central tendency would be appropriate to describe this variable?. 1 operating system to analyze data for this article. So, let’s have a glance that how SPSS helps in the likert scale analysis. It would be so nice to have this large chart varied according to chosen background variable with a push of a button. For example, a Likert scale that contains five values - strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree - is ordinal. If someone wants to recode a 5-point Likert scale, they can easily use the reverse coded Q01 feature with: COMPUTE RQ01 = (6 – Q01). Clemson International Institute for Tourism & Research Development, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. PSPP is a free alternative to SPSS. The additional information on reliability and correlations between scales that is returned by the function is relevant both to characterising the scale and checking that it was formed correctly. A Nominal (sometimes also called categorical) variable is one whose values vary in categories. Your new Likert scale. Likert scale data can be analyzed as interval data, i. Likert scale mean and standard deviation spss (source: on YouTube) Likert scale mean and standard deviation spss. In Most business researches Likert Scale variables are taken as having equal interval. Likert scales were developed in 1932 as the familiar five-point bipolar response format most people are familiar with today. Age in spss nominal or scale | Поиск. , a five-point Likert scale/ approve disapprove into 3 categories or divide responses of a 4-level frequency question into 2 groups). Using SPSS, enter data from a questionnaire in which respondents had to choose one option from a likert scale. The second type of data scaling is called ordinal. After performing an analysis, the regression statistics can be used to predict the dependent variable when the independent variable is known. This tutorial will show you how to use SPSS version 10 to automatically recode variables, manually recode variables, and compute variables. The principle of the test is that if the groups were equal Analysis will help you to answer these questions. Linear Regression Analysis for Survey Data Professor Ron Fricker Naval Postgraduate School Goals for this Lecture • Linear regression - How to think about it for Lickert scale dependent variables - Coding nominal independent variables • Linear regression for complex surveys • Not so much for Likert scales without neutral. Rangskala) und metrisch (kardinal) beschreiben das Messniveau einer Variable oder eines Items, während eine Likert Skala eine Abfolge von Aussagen bzw. The Likert scale is commonly used in survey research. Randomly Flip Scales Left to Right Survey researchers use randomization as a tool to combat survey bias. , a 5-point scale explaining how much a customer liked a product,. Click on in the main dialog box. Nominal and ordinal data can be either string alphanumeric or numeric. scale instead of a discrete, Likert -type scale, causes moderated regression analysis effect sizes to increase an average of 93 %. Table of Contents Overview 7 Key Concepts and Terms 7 Constructs vs. In this post, I outline when and how to use single imputation using an expectation-maximization algorithm in SPSS to deal with missing data. How to compute the average or composite scale by combining variables or items in SPSS How to compute the average or composite scale by combining variables or items in SPSS Likert Scales. This tutorial has 49 comments. Likert scaling is a bipolar scaling method, measuring either positive or negative response to a statement. This "Getting started with SPSS" resource is contributed to the statstutor Community project by Christine Pereira, Brunel University and reviewed by Kate Richards, MEI. If your dependent or independent variables have more than two groups, you may attempt to combine some of the groups together to obtain a bigger sample size within a group. In the ODBC Driver Login window, click on the Browse button. Sometimes a couple of graphs are sufficient and a formalize statistical test isn’t even necessary. Measuring customer satisfaction using ordinal variables: an application in survey… 335 bar. The good news is that it is not at all difficult to work with weighted survey data in Tableau. Merge-SPSS Merging Data Files In SPSS You have two data files. varstocases /make Likert From Likert1 to Likert30 /index Question (Likert). These people will rate this new product and an old product in the same category and rate the products on a scale, typically on a scale of 1-10. 23 His approach involved the presentation of a set of selected items that together measured one trait, such as satisfaction with a teaching method. , Test Scores for Males vs. The reason why Likert-style scales are easier to work with than Thurstone scales is that they make the response process cumulative. We call this plot "the pyramid of the customer satisfaction" (Fig. Statistics is a diverse profession, with statisticians working in areas such as health care, manufacturing, defense, and national security, to name just a few. Sometimes you will want to transform a variable by grouping its categories or values together. If you asked 15 questions, you should have at least 15 different variables. These variables are quantitative or continuous, and are represented by the ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Multivariate statistics allows for associations and effects between predictor and outcome variables to be adjusted for by demographic, clinical, and prognostic variables (simultaneous regression). This post is about a technique for combining portions of two tables to get the one you really wanted by using multiple procedures, OMS, and the STATS TABLE CALC extension command. ■ Observations of actual age (ratio scale) can be collapsed to categories of younger and older (ordinal scale), but age measured simply as younger or older cannot be converted to measures of actual age. Then click on the variable name that you are checking and move it to the Variable box. Here you must decide if a variable is Nominal, Ordinal or Scale. I have data measured on scale 0=strongly disagree to 10 strongly agree. The choices range from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree so the survey maker can get a holistic view of people’s opinions and their level of agreement. This will be in numerical form (1, 2, 3, …), but you can change it to. One is to compre. For example, one could have several Likert items with various questions about religious attitudes or behaviors, and then combine those items to a single Likert. This "Getting started with SPSS" resource is contributed to the statstutor Community project by Christine Pereira, Brunel University and reviewed by Kate Richards, MEI. sav_to_rds()) Converting one or more categorical variable(s) into other variable types, such as dummy variables (binary), count variables (numeric), or "fill" variables (fills values from a required column if condition is TRUE). Converting likert scales into numbers in excel. How to combine variables in SPSS Statistics Add Variables together in SPSS using the Compute Procedure Recode scale variable into categories in SPSS - Duration:. A Likert scale refers to multiple Likert items measuring a single conceptual domain. In such cases, if you have non-Likert-scale variables (so, variables like age, income, revenue, etc. The last column needing to be defined is 'Measure'. i also asked the age, GPA, and sex of the participant. I do believe that SPSS can only perform on Likert scale to show frequency, mean meridian. I would like to run a count frequency against all the variables and merge the graphs so it will display the percentage of people who checked off the box. For example, one could have several Likert items with various questions about religious attitudes or behaviors, and then combine those items to a single Likert scale on religiosity. , Sweets); Scroll down the Function Group, and select Statistical ; From the functions that appear select the Median. It is often used to measure respondents' attitudes by asking the extent to which they agree or disagree with a particular question or statement. So that's all variables except nominal variables. In some cases, however, Likert scales (which are ordinal) are treated as if they were metric. Technically, a Likert item is a single question with Likert responses, whereas a Likert scale is a group of items viewed together as a single measure. We call this plot "the pyramid of the customer satisfaction" (Fig. Ordinal: An ordinal scale of measurement represents an ordered series of relationships or rank order. interested in combining the data from the first five questions into one measure of student motivation. Cada uno de estos números son "elementos de Likert", y por lo general han sido etiquetados de "Totalmente en desacuerdo" a "Totalmente de acuerdo", con varios intervalos entre ellos. What is the advantage of using SPSS over calculating statistics by hand? Open the Variable Viewer and recode the value When cross-tabulating two variables, it SPSS Reliability Example. Responses to several Likert questions may be summed, providing that all questions use the same Likert scale and that the scale is a defendable approximation to an interval scale, in which case they may be treated as interval data measuring a latent variable. All Likert scale survey questions also include a mid-point, for those who are neutral on the subject matter. Overview I received an e-mail inquiry about weighted data recently and realized that while I cover this in my survey data class I had not yet posted anything about it here. The Likert scale, named for Rensis Likert (pronounced "lick-urt") who published a seminal report describing its use, possibly is the most widely employed form of attitude measurement in survey research. The Frequencies procedure can produce summary measures for categorical variables in the form of frequency tables, bar charts, or pie charts. Bevor wir den Blick auf den Zusammenhang von Likert Skala und Skalierungsniveau werfen, ist klarzustellen: Die Skalierungen nominal, ordinal (bzw. SPSS is a statistical analysis program that is used in a variety of fields, from market researchers to government agencies. Enter the data values for both variables in one column. With Likert-scale items this is particularly common. Do the same to add an error variable to the. Table of Contents Overview 7 Key Concepts and Terms 7 Constructs vs. Cada uno de estos números son "elementos de Likert", y por lo general han sido etiquetados de "Totalmente en desacuerdo" a "Totalmente de acuerdo", con varios intervalos entre ellos. A variable can be treated…. In some cases, however, Likert scales (which are ordinal) are treated as if they were metric. These correlations are explored in factor analysis and/or inspection of item-total correlations with the "reliability" program in SPSS or other. You may have noticed that the value labels of the combined variable don't look very nice if system missing values are present in the original values. Re: Invert Likert-Scale Values In reply to this post by Alexis Delevett Alexis and John, To reverse a Likert like item, subtract the item from the maximum acceptable value + the minimum acceptable value, That is, if x <- 1:8 xreverse <- 9-x Bill At 2:16 PM -0700 8/4/07, Alexis Delevett wrote:. Likert scale correlation analysis spss. Nominal and ordinal data can be either string alphanumeric or numeric. Use the Likert Scale in Statistical Analysis. This is supported by Lissits and Green (1975) that Likert scale reliability increased from 2 to 5. the students rated how much they liked the class on a 7-point Likert scale with 1 being that they did not like the class at all and 7 being that they liked the class very much. Reliability. In SPSS' "variable view," create different variables for each item on your Likert scale. So, let’s have a glance that how SPSS helps in the likert scale analysis. My supervisor can not help me and my fellow students with Stata, since she is trained with SPSS, and neither Google search nor the manual granted any helpful results, so that is why i came to this forum. Another example of an ordinal variable is the Likert Scale, which is often used in surveys. Enter the data values for both variables in one column. Strictly speaking, a Likert scale is the result of adding together the scores on several Likert items. Rating scales such as Likert scales and semantic differential scales are very common in marketing research, customer satisfaction studies, psychometrics, opinion surveys, and numerous other fields. Technically, a Likert item is a single question with Likert responses, whereas a Likert scale is a group of items viewed together as a single measure. One common reasons is creation of a scale measure that combines several existing variables into a single variable, such as to summarize a phenomenon of interest. In the measure column, pick "Scale" for the combined variable and "Nominal" for the variable which identifies which variable, first or second, from which the variable value originated. Rating - Likert scale; semantic differential scale. However, ordinal independent variables must be treated as being either continuous or categorical. It can perform a variety of data analyses and presentation functions, including statistical analysis and graphical presentation of data. Compare frequencies between multiple groups spss. Anyone have some insight?. This time, however, you cre- ated the output by running the syntax (code) you created with the Paste func- tion. Two other useful commands are Frequencies (in the dialog box, click on the Statistics button), when you want to see counts as well as means and standard deviations (perhaps for Likert scales), and Explore, which gives you such additional statistics as the median and interquartile range as well as a variety of graphs. Likert scales are widely used in survey studies for attitude measuring. • Consider how to download the data: o For SPSS, under "Options for coded exports" tick the box for "Combine scale/rank values into a single column where possible". Importing Excel Databases Into SPSS. Notice how the data have been entered into SPSS. For this assignment, we will start with a. To run the Frequencies procedure, click Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Frequencies. There are few steps in analyzing your ordinal scale data from the Likert Scale. I have data measured on scale 0=strongly disagree to 10 strongly agree. One of the first things that Jake decides to do is figure out how. How to combine variables in SPSS Statistics Add Variables together in SPSS using the Compute Procedure Recode scale variable into categories in SPSS - Duration:. Simply type in the name of your new scale in the Target variable box and the addition you want in the Numeric variable box. A questionnaire is a collection of a set of questions. For example, when using standardised questionnaires you often need to calculate a total and/or several sub-scale scores rather than analysing every question separately. No evidence for rejecting the hypothesis of normality was found. • Click OK or Apply. Quantitative data analysis is helpful in evaluation because it provides quantifiable and easy to understand results. I am an SPSS novice, and I found this group recently when I was trying to determine how to combine two categorical into one variable in SPSS. Each item was a declarative statement. Enjoyment scale. Though analysis of Likert scale data can be quite the scientific and mathematical undertaking (especially in determining validity, distortions, etc. DATA VIEW is used for typing in data, and VARIABLE VIEW is used for creating variables. Likert scale mean and standard deviation spss (source: on YouTube) Likert scale mean and standard deviation spss. This exam covers Chapters 13, 14, 15, & 20. Data from a survey using a Likert scale may seem easy. ) and one that is measured on a nominal scale (marital status, ethnicity, etc. Merge-SPSS Merging Data Files In SPSS You have two data files. how do I do it?? Reply. Rating scales such as Likert scales and semantic differential scales are very common in marketing research, customer satisfaction studies, psychometrics, opinion surveys, and numerous other fields. The most common form of merging is what SPSS calls a parallel "matched merge", where two files are sequentially organized and combined to create one large file. Here you must decide if a variable is Nominal, Ordinal or Scale. To distinguish individual items from the summated Likert scale, we will refer to the individual items as Likert-type items. Nominal and ordinal data can be either string alphanumeric) or numeric but what is the difference? 1. You look at a frequency distribution and the variable is highly positively skewed (fewer people reported many psychotic symptoms). Independent variable: average number of study hours per week. It sounds like you might want to conduct a reliability analysis on the variables you wish to combine, that are theoretically related to one another. In both files each case has an identifier, and the identifiers match across cases. A Likert scale, on the other hand, is composed of a series of four or more Likert-type items that are combined into a single composite score/variable during the data analysis process. The data in the worksheet are five-point Likert scale data for two groups. Likert is a bipolar scale which can contain for both positive and negative response of a statement in SPSS research. merge them into one file. Bardo, Yeager, & Klingsporn (1982) noted that the scale reliability decreases as the number of choice-points exceeds two. In SPSS, there are two views: DATA VIEW and VARIABLE VIEW. Check this stuff out which may help. It is not possible to rank the categories created. This will be in numerical form (1, 2, 3, …), but you can change it to. If the raw data for Visual Analog Scales are converted into either ranks or ordered categories, inferences regarding their reliability and validity coefficients could be handled in the same manner. There are two ways to do this in SPSS syntax. Converting likert scales into numbers in excel. The reason why Likert-style scales are easier to work with than Thurstone scales is that they make the response process cumulative. Add Variables merges the active dataset with another open dataset or external IBM® SPSS® Statistics data file that contains the same cases (rows) but different variables (columns). In this section, you will learn about the most common quantitative analysis procedures that are used in small program evaluation. Before you begin the process of importing your data into SPSS, you need to ensure that your variable names are in the first row of the. 10, 11, 24, 27, 28 Likert scales are a set of items used together. Creating Graphs in SPSS This tutorial will show you how to explore your data, by producing graphs in SPSS. A Matrix question is a closed-ended question that asks respondents to evaluate one or more row items using the same set of column choices. A typical scale might be "strongly agree, agree, not sure/undecided, disagree, strongly disagree. For example, when using standardised questionnaires you often need to calculate a total and/or several sub-scale scores rather than analysing every question separately. Using SPSS, enter data from a questionnaire in which respondents had to choose one option from a likert scale. How to combine variables in SPSS Statistics Add Variables together in SPSS using the Compute Procedure Recode scale variable into categories in SPSS - Duration:. , a five-point Likert scale/ approve disapprove into 3 categories or divide responses of a 4-level frequency question into 2 groups). 0 to perform binomial tests, Chi-squared test with one variable, and Chi-squared test of independence of categorical variables on. Using Likert Type Data in Social Science Research: Confusion, Issues and Challenges when ordinal data are employed in statistical analyses that require interval scale variables (Harwell & Gatti, 2001). Home | Can an Ordinal Likert Scale be a Continuous Variable? Likert scales are a way for participants to respond to a question with a level of agreement, disagreement, satisfaction, and so on. SPSS Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test - Simple Example Using SPSS for Ordinal Data (Mann-Whitney U, Sign Test, and Here. In SPSS, this type of transform is called recoding. In this article learn how to use SPSS software to analyze data for research paper. • Change the settings. likert function in my. In this scale, the questions are suitable to measure mean that can give you a sense in which direction most of the people’s opinion took place. For the best applications, the curve is shifted so far to the right that you cannot see the "hump" of the bell curve and you only see the first slope of it, so you are looking at a upwards. I have a few different items (questions), each requiring an estimate of effectiveness on the above Likert scale. They are sometimes called composites, subtests, schedules, or inventories. So, I am confused because I do >> > not understand whether calculating and interpreting the mean of a >> > Likert scale is correct or not. “Likert-type scale response anchors. So, let’s have a glance that how SPSS helps in the likert scale analysis. Quantitative data can be analyzed in a variety of different ways. Most Likert scales are classified as ordinal variables. In other words, the reliability of any given measurement refers to the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept, and Cronbach’s alpha is one way of measuring the strength of that consistency. Quantitative data analysis is helpful in evaluation because it provides quantifiable and easy to understand results. Although Likert scale is numeric, it is intrinsically ordinal (1 - Strongly disagree to 5 - Strongly agree). These variables are quantitative or continuous, and are represented by the ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Combining Likert scales into indexes adds values and variability to the data. Converting likert scales into numbers in excel. It is often used to measure respondents' attitudes by asking the extent to which they agree or disagree with a particular question or statement. There are two ways to do this in SPSS syntax. You want to match up records by identifiers. One is to compre. In both files each case has an identifier, and the identifiers match across cases. [ΝΒ it is possible to select the mean , but I don’t recommend it]. Assignment 3: Likert-scale response graphics for 'O ce Environment' survey Due Monday, February 10 Turn-in a. Analyzing Likert Scale Data in Excel. So, I am confused because I do >> > not understand whether calculating and interpreting the mean of a >> > Likert scale is correct or not. For example, the variables salbegin and salary have been selected in this manner in the above example. There is a difference between a likert scale item (a single 1-7 scale, eg. Spearman correlations apply to ordinal and metric (scale) variables. While not all summated scales are created according to Likert's specific procedures, all such scales share the basic logic associated with Likert scaling. 4 likert gap Fictitious dataset with importance and satisfaction results across five different offices. We call this plot "the pyramid of the customer satisfaction" (Fig. Likert scales are a. Data preparation. A Likert scale is a multi-item scale, not a single item. Nominal and ordinal data can be either string alphanumeric or numeric. Welcome! Chances are that you landed on this page looking for information on Likert scales and averages. There are two questions relating to Likert Scale. Like the Descriptive Statistics tutorial, the data used for this example is loosely based on the evaluation of the Schools Linking Network. Now to make the population pyramid Likert chart we will use SPSS’s ability to reflect panels, and so we assign an indicator variable to delineate the positive and negative responses. self-confidence, then those should be combined into one variable (provided some conditions described below are met). In SPSS' "variable view," create different variables for each item on your Likert scale. Before you begin the process of importing your data into SPSS, you need to ensure that your variable names are in the first row of the. This codebook is vital to you as you interpret your data - it is what keeps you from getting lost in a sea of numbers. In other words, the reliability of any given measurement refers to the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept, and Cronbach’s alpha is one way of measuring the strength of that consistency. In SPSS use Transform > Compute variable to do this. SPSS NOTE: When running either a MANOVA or MANCOVA, SPSS produces tables that show whether response variables (on the whole) vary by levels of your factor(s). Each area may make use of different methodologies and applications. Creating a new SPSS Statistics data file consists of two. The Likert scale is named for its creator, American scientist Rensis Likert, who felt that surveys yielding only yes-or-no answers were limited in their usefulness. For example, a very common situation is a researcher needs to average the values of the 5 variables on a scale, each of which is measured on the same Likert scale. Select Add Cases or Add Variables. You should also take a look at the list of additional resources. SPSS has a nice little feature for adding and averaging variables with missing data that many people don't know about. I first proposed to do a 2 way independent ANOVA but the results made no sense in the data output, I have been searching all day to what I should do but I am now even more confused as I have the questions set to ordinal but then found people to say it should be nominal as it is a likert scale(?). This is particularly so when it comes to the measurement of constructs. It is the safest way to ensure that only allowable values or text are entered for each variable during data entry. Converting likert scales into numbers in excel. Click on "Graphs", choose "Chart Builder" and click "OK" in the window that opens. How to Test Validity questionnaire Using SPSS | The validity and reliability the instrument is essential in research data collection. Definition: A psychometric response scale primarily used in questionnaires to obtain participant’s preferences or degree of agreement with a statement or set of statements. SPSS measurement levels are limited to nominal (i. , "trust in goverment") is itself an exercise which illuminates surrounding. A Likert scale, on the other hand, is composed of a series of four or more Likert-type items that are combined into a single composite score/variable during the data analysis process. Very helpful in this context was the new debug feature of RStudio, that also keeps track of all variables and their content and allows step-by-step execution of your code. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Definition of a Likert Scale. How to combine variables in SPSS Statistics Add Variables together in SPSS using the Compute Procedure Recode scale variable into categories in SPSS - Duration:. Cronbach’s Alpha In this tutorial you will learn how to produce a simple and commonly used measure of reliability: Cronbach's alpha. , a 5-point scale explaining how much a customer liked a product,. If you need to convert a numeric value to a string there is one additional step: you must first declare the string variable. Using Likert Type Data in Social Science Research: Confusion, Issues and Challenges when ordinal data are employed in statistical analyses that require interval scale variables (Harwell & Gatti, 2001). Likert scales are widely used in survey studies for attitude measuring. It was found that the largest bias in the estimation of the model R-squared, the relative Pratt Index, and Pearson correlation coefficient occurred for two or three-point Likert scales. The instructions and examples will help guide you through establishing different types of variables for your particular research or analysis needs. scale instead of a discrete, Likert -type scale, causes moderated regression analysis effect sizes to increase an average of 93 %. Converting likert scales into numbers in excel. Nonetheless, if you have a study with small sample size, and both dependent and independent variables only have two groups, you may opt to perform Fisher Exact test. How to compute the average or composite scale by combining variables or items in SPSS How to compute the average or composite scale by combining variables or items in SPSS Likert Scales. In this case you will want to create a scale variable, constructed from your items. What I want to do is combine these and hopefully do a regression analysis (Is this allowed, btw? I've googled for days, but there seem to be a lot of disagreement). There is a lot of controversy about how to analyze a Likert item. positions on the scale are monotonic but not well defined to make them numerically uniform increments thus making the likert scale have. To check the reliability of Likert scale items follows the steps given below: Step 1: On the Menu bar of SPSS, Click Analyze > Scale > Reliability Analysis… option Step 2: Select two more variables that you want to test and shift them from left pan to right pan of reliability analysis dialogue box. SCALES AND MEASURES A graduate level introduction and illustrated tutorial to measurement and scaling, including Likert scales, Guttman scales, Mokken scales, Rasch scales and more. It allows you to add or average variables, while specifiying how many are allowed to be missing. SPSS Variable Name Limitations: SPSS Variable names cannot start with numbers. Select one variable that is measured as a continuous or metric variable (age, Likert scale item, etc. Likert scale is used when you need to get on the whole of your dissertation topic, outlook or knowledge. Multiple responses—in the sense used here—are defined by a degree of open-endedness. Likert-type scales (such as "On a scale of 1 to 10, with one being no pain and ten being high pain, how much pain are you. Responses to several Likert questions may be summed providing that all questions use the same Likert scale and that the scale is a defensible approximation to an interval scale, in which case the central limit theorem allows treatment of the data as interval data measuring a latent variable. Subjects choose from a range of possible responses to a specific question or statement; responses typically include “strongly agree,” “agree,” “neutral,” “disagree,” and “strongly disagree. This means that the scores must all have the same valence: if you score higher on one item, you will score higher on the other. Creating Graphs in SPSS This tutorial will show you how to explore your data, by producing graphs in SPSS. For example, if you have questionnaire Go to Transform - Recode into Different Variables 3. If you did not have a 5 point Likert scale, the code 6 – x, would need to be changed. In some cases, the measurement scale for data is ordinal, but the variable is treated as continuous. Computing variables in SPSS refers to computing with existing variables to create new variables. Reliability – SPSS Output Item-Total Statistics Degree to which item correlates with the total score The reliability if the particular item is removed Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted. These variables are quantitative or continuous, and are represented by the ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Ordinal data -- such as 5-point scale ratings, called Likert scales -- are not numerical data, and the ANOVA will not yield accurate results if used with ordinal data. If you are 100% sure that the distance between variables is constant, then they can be treated as interval variables for testing purposes. Calculate the Median. It was found that the largest bias in the estimation of the model R-squared, the relative Pratt Index, and Pearson correlation coefficient occurred for two or three-point Likert scales. I was recently asked about whether it's okay to treat a likert scale as continuous as a predictor in a regression model. To analyze the different between pre/post, I've been told to combine all 17 items into one item and then do a t-test (or rank sums since ordinal?). In the dialog box, click Statistics. But factor analysis is a more advanced analysis technique. 1 for under $50, 2 for $51 - $75, 3 for more than $75) String: A variable whose values are not numeric and therefore are not used in calculations. The key to typing in data is to type in responses across the page in DATA VIEW. SPSS Variable Name Limitations: SPSS Variable names cannot start with numbers. Likert and Likert-Type Scales The Likert scale is named for its creator, American scientist Rensis Likert, who felt that surveys yielding only yes-or-no answers were limited in their usefulness. If I have a measure of bullying and use SPSS to make 3 new sub-scales with each sub-scale has X number of item (questions) in each category, like this: Scale A (5 items) - ( each question scored on a 5 point likert scale ) Scale B (3 items) Scale C (7 items). You’re now ready to use your Likert scale. ■ Variables measured at a higher level can always be converted to a lower level but not vice versa. In this section, you will learn about the most common quantitative analysis procedures that are used in small program evaluation. A typical scale might be "strongly agree, agree, not sure/undecided, disagree, strongly disagree. Very helpful in this context was the new debug feature of RStudio, that also keeps track of all variables and their content and allows step-by-step execution of your code. If someone wants to recode a 5-point Likert scale, they can easily use the reverse coded Q01 feature with: COMPUTE RQ01 = (6 – Q01). I cannot figure out how to get SPSS to do multiple counts and merge the output graphs. It is particularly useful for quantifying effects measured on unfamiliar or arbitrary scales and for comparing the relative sizes of effects from different studies. One is to compre. The values can contain any characters up to the defined length. The Frequencies procedure can produce summary measures for categorical variables in the form of frequency tables, bar charts, or pie charts. A Likert Scales is used in survey research to measure satisfaction or agreement to a survey set. Scales construction is easy if you know how to use your statistics program. Ordinal Measurement Scales. Sometimes a four-point scale is used; this is a forced choice method since the middle option of "Neither agree nor disagree" is not available. Converting likert scales into numbers in excel. Though the problem of attitude suggests an ordinal interpretation of Likert scales, attitude survey data are often evaluated with techniques designed for cardinal measurements. The last column needing to be defined is 'Measure'. Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your spss essay. variable names can't contain spaces, the spaces from the original column headings have been removed. A Likert scale is composed of a series of four or more Likert-type items that represent similar questions combined into a single composite score/variable. All Likert scale survey questions also include a mid-point, for those who are neutral on the subject matter. I was recently asked about whether it's okay to treat a likert scale as continuous as a predictor in a regression model. Select Open Database and then New Query. For example, within variable list boxes in dialogs, you have the option to display the. Rangskala) und metrisch (kardinal) beschreiben das Messniveau einer Variable oder eines Items, während eine Likert Skala eine Abfolge von Aussagen bzw. Likert-type scales (such as "On a scale of 1 to 10, with one being no pain and ten being high pain, how much pain are you. How to Test Validity questionnaire Using SPSS | The validity and reliability the instrument is essential in research data collection. 92 for the whole scale. Scenario 4: Likert scales quantitative, latent variables categorical => latent profile analysis. The one-sample median test is used to test a hypothesized median value against an observed median value in a representative sample. A single item, regardless of its format, should not be called a Likert scale. SPSS is capable of handling large amounts of After you create that constant, save the data file. The scale is named after Rensis Likert, who published a report describing its use (Likert, 1932). I've used an externally validated, 17-item self-efficacy scale at pre/post an intervention. Sometimes a four-point scale is used; this is a forced choice method since the middle option of "Neither agree nor disagree" is not available. How to analyze Likert type dependent variables Suppose your dependent variable (DV) is a Likert scale or something similar. · Select one variable that is measured as a continuous or metric variable (age, Likert scale item, etc. If you are 100% sure that the distance between variables is constant, then they can be treated as interval variables for testing purposes. Use of scales with fewer values not only violates normality assumptions but also runs a heightened risk of confounding difficulty factors as discussed in the section below on use of dichotomies. Reporting and Interpreting Scores Derived from Likert-type Scales J. Repeating the scale Now, once you have defined a value scale, such as the 7-point agreement scale, for a variable, if other variables also use the same scale, you do not need to go through the. If you asked 15 questions, you should have at least 15 different variables. That means the majority of SurveyMonkey customers will be able to do all their data collection and analysis without outside help. I used IBM SPSS Statistics v19 on my 64-bit Windows 8. How to code gender in spss (source: on YouTube) How to code gender in spss. SPSS Variable Name Limitations: SPSS Variable names cannot start with numbers. Duplicate variable names are also not permitted in SPSS (our system will identify any duplicates in the General tab of your export). Anyone have some insight?. • Evaluate a variable for a single group within a population e. I would be grateful if you could help me. Conclude that the mean GPA is not 3. Data preparation. 8 Likert scales are ‘summated’ scales, so called because a respondent’s answers on each question are summed to give their overall score on the attitude or value. As a reference, below are the other variable levels supported in SPSS. In other words, the reliability of any given measurement refers to the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept, and Cronbach’s alpha is one way of measuring the strength of that consistency. CPSC 681 – Topic Report Dane Bertram Likert Scales 1 | Page Likert Scale \lick­urt\, n. ), I'll oonly discuss a simple way in which to interpret the data you've collected. This means that the scores must all have the same valence: if you score higher on one item, you will score higher on the other. Definition of a Likert Scale. Put also the independent variable in the grouping variable box. A two-way ordinal analysis of variance can address an experimental design with two independent variables, each of which is a factor variable. In SPSS, this type of transform is called recoding. My question/problem is: How can I combine these 4 Likert items into one scale, so that I have one number for. In SPSS the researcher can specify the level of measurement as scale (numeric data on an interval or ratio scale), ordinal, or nominal. A Likert scale, on the other hand, is composed of a series of four or more Likert-type items that are combined into a single composite score/variable during the data analysis process. For simplicity, variables that have only two categories, even if they can be ranked, will be referred to as qualitative variables since this will be important later when determining which statistical tests may be used for analysis. Natasha Beretvas University of Florida The University of Texas at Austin The performance of multiple imputation (MI) for missing data in Likert-type items assuming multivariate normality was assessed using simulation methods. Re: Invert Likert-Scale Values In reply to this post by Alexis Delevett Alexis and John, To reverse a Likert like item, subtract the item from the maximum acceptable value + the minimum acceptable value, That is, if x <- 1:8 xreverse <- 9-x Bill At 2:16 PM -0700 8/4/07, Alexis Delevett wrote:. The instructions and examples will help guide you through establishing different types of variables for your particular research or analysis needs. Responses of this scale usually considered as ordinal data. Linear Regression Analysis for Survey Data Professor Ron Fricker Naval Postgraduate School Goals for this Lecture • Linear regression - How to think about it for Lickert scale dependent variables - Coding nominal independent variables • Linear regression for complex surveys • Not so much for Likert scales without neutral. So that's all variables except nominal variables. of Likert Scales nicely. A Variable(s): The variables to produce Frequencies output for. To do this you will take the average score of the questions. You could type in all the values for the first variable and then type in all the values for the second variable, or alternate the values for the two variables. However, ordinal independent variables must be treated as being either continuous or categorical. I used IBM SPSS Statistics v19 on my 64-bit Windows 8. While writing this book we have used the SPSS Base, Advanced Models, Regression Models,and the SPSS Exact Testsadd-on modules.